Which Art Movements Did The Two Chosen Artists Contribute To After Cubism?

After Cubism, the world never looked the same again: it was one of the most influential and revolutionary movements in art. The Spaniard Pablo Picasso and the Frenchman Georges Braque splintered the visual world not wantonly, but sensuously and beautifully with their new art. They provided what we could almost call a God's-eye view of reality: every aspect of the whole subject, seen simultaneously in a single dimension.
The Cubist movement in painting was developed by Picasso and Braque around 1907 and became a major influence on Western art. The artists chose to break down the subjects they were painting into a number of facets, showing several different aspects of one object simultaneously. The work up to 1912 is known as Analytical Cubism, concentrating on geometrical forms using subdued colors. The second phase, known as Synthetic Cubism, used more decorative shapes, stencilling, collage, and brighter colors. It was then that artists such as Picasso and Braque started to use pieces of cut-up newspaper in their paintings.



external image 220px-Picasso_three_musicians_moma_2006.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngThree Musicians (1921), Museum of Modern Art
Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed along with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colors. Both artists took apart objects and “analyzed” them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque’s paintings at this time have many similarities. Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre, in which cut paper fragments—often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages—were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.

Classicism and surrealism

In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style. This “return to order” is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, and the artists of the New Objectivity movement. Picasso’s paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Ingres.
During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in Picasso’s Guernica.
external image 300px-PicassoGuernica.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngGuernica, 1937, Museo Reina Sofia
Arguably Picasso’s most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War//Guernica//. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, Picasso said, “It isn’t up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if he wrote them out in so many words! The public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them.


external image 220px-Braque.woman.400pix.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngGeorges Braque, Woman with a Guitar, 1913. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. An example of Synthetic Cubism.
Braque's paintings of 1908–1913 began to reflect his new interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective. He conducted an intense study of the effects of light and perspective and the technical means that painters use to represent these effects, appearing to question the most standard of artistic conventions. In his village scenes, for example, Braque frequently reduced an architectural structure to a geometric form approximating a cube, yet rendered its shading so that it looked both flat and three-dimensional by fragmenting the image. He showed this in the painting "House at L'estaque". In this way, Braque called attention to the very nature of visual illusion and artistic representation.
external image 180px-Braque_fruitdish_glass.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngFruitdish and Glass, papier collé and charcoal on paper, 1912.
Beginning in 1909, Braque began to work closely with Pablo Picasso, who had been developing a similar approach to painting. At the time Pablo Picasso was influenced by Gauguin, Cézanne, African tribal masks and Iberian sculpture, while Braque was mostly interested in developing Cézanne's idea's of multiple perspectives. “A comparison of the works of Picasso and Braque during 1908 reveals that the effect of his encounter with Picasso was more to accelerate and intensify Braque’s exploration of Cézanne’s ideas, rather than to divert his thinking in any essential way.”[[#cite_note-0|[1]]] The invention of Cubism was a joint effort between Picasso and Braque, then residents of Montmartre, Paris. These artists were the movement's main innovators. After meeting in October or November 1907,[[#cite_note-1|[2]]] Braque and Picasso, in particular, began working on the development of Cubism in 1908. Both artists produced paintings of monochromatic color and complex patterns of faceted form, now called Analytic Cubism.
A decisive moment in its development occurred during the summer of 1911[[#cite_note-2|[3]]], when Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso painted side by side in Céret, in the French Pyrenees, each artist producing paintings that are difficult—sometimes virtually impossible—to distinguish from those of the other. In 1912, they began to experiment with collage and papier collé.
Their productive collaboration continued and they worked closely together until the outbreak of World War I in 1914 when Braque enlisted in the French Army, leaving Paris to fight in the First World War.
French art critic Louis Vauxcelles first used the term Cubism, or "bizarre cubiques", in 1908 after seeing a picture by Braque. He described it as 'full of little cubes', after which the term quickly gained wide use although the two creators did not initially adopt it. Art historian Ernst Gombrich described cubism as "the most radical attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture - that of a man-made construction, a colored canvas."[[#cite_note-3|[4]]] The Cubist movement spread quickly throughout Paris and Europe.

Later work

Braque was severely wounded in the war, and when he resumed his artistic career in 1917 he moved away from the harsher abstraction of cubism. Working alone, he developed a more personal style, characterized by brilliant color and textured surfaces and—following his move to the Normandy seacoast—the reappearance of the human figure. He painted many still life subjects during this time, maintaining his emphasis on structure. During his recovery he became a close friend of the cubist artist Juan Gris.
However, he nonetheless continued to work throughout the remainder of his life, producing a considerable number of distinguished paintings, graphics, and sculptures, all imbued with a pervasive contemplative quality. Braque, along with Matisse, is credited for introducing Pablo Picasso to Fernand Mourlot, and most of the lithographs and book illustrations he himself created in the 1940s and '50s were produced at the Mourlot Studios. He died on 31 August 1963, in Paris. He is buried in the church cemetery in Saint-Marguerite-sur-Mer, Normandy, France. Braque's work is in most major museums throughout the world.

Timeline of Pablo Picasso

A talented artist, Pablo Picasso was one such person who was way ahead of his time in terms of his creativity and thinking powers. These are aptly depicted in his stylized works. Here’s a look at the timeline of Pablo Picasso, which notes down some important events connected with his life.
Timeline of Pablo Picasso
Timeline of Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso, the talented Spanish artist is known all over the world his Cubist style of painting. This highly talented Spanish painter was a draughtsman and a sculptor as well. He founded many other various styles of painting. Today, Pablo Picasso remains to be an iconic figure for art students and art lovers all across the globe. Here is a look at the timeline of Pablo Picasso which makes a note of some of the important events related to his life.

Timeline of Pablo Picasso:
1881: Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruiz y Picasso, was born in Málaga, Spain. He had a series of names that were given in honor of all the various saints and relatives. Born in a middle class family, Pablo Picasso’s father, Ruiz was a painter.

1891: The entire family moved to La Coruña since Pablo Picasso’s father was taking up a job as a professor at the School of Fine Arts.

1894: It can be said that this was the year when Pablo Picasso’s career began as an artist in this period.

1895: Pablo Picasso’s seven-year-old sister died due to diphtheria. Therefore, the entire family then moved to Barcelona. His father, Ruiz, had a transfer to the school of Fine Arts. This was the time when Picasso answered an entrance exam and impressed the jury at the academy, which also helped him to secure admission into the institute as well.

1896: Pablo Picasso painted The First Communion. This year, he also painted the Portrait of Aunt Pepa.

1897: Pablo Picasso set off on his own for the first time in his life. This was a time when he developed a tinge of Symbolist influence in his realistic works.

1900: Pablo Picasso first visited Paris. Paris was considered to be the art capital of Europe. This is where he met Max Jacob, a journalist and poet.

1901: Pablo Picasso along with his friend, Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine, Arte Joven (Young Art). This was when Pablo Picasso added grim cartoons that spoke about the state of the poor.

Between 1900-1901, Pablo Picasso’s paintings contained shades of only blue and green. Other colors were used sparingly or only as support for the entire canvas.

1903: This was time when blindness was represented in most of Picasso’s works such as The Blindman’s Meal and the portrait of Celestina painted this year.

1904: This was the period which was named as the Rose Period (1904-1906) and one could see a use of colors such as orange and pink in his works. It is rumored that Pablo Picasso met Fernande Oliver this year. (Fernande Oliver was a Bohemian artist who appears in many of Picasso’s paintings) This meeting and his relationship with her changed the style of his paintings, which was reflected in the colors used.

1907: Pablo Picasso completed his work, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon) in France. This is one of Picasso’s famous works.

1909: Pablo Picasso, known for the style called cubism, first developed it this year. The period between 1909-1912 is considered to be when cubism first took shape with the help of George Braque. Both these artists analyzed shapes and translated them into images with their creativity.

1911: Pablo Picasso’s friend, Apollinaire was suspected and later arrested for stealing the Monalisa from the Louvre. This led to the arrest of Picasso as well who was questioned and later released as not guilty.

1912: Synthetic cubism was developed during this period. This was the time when collage was first used; portions of newspaper were used to create compositions.

1918: Pablo Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, who was a ballerina.

1927: Pablo Picasso had a secret affair with 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter. His marriage was one that had constant conflicts for the past few years.

1937: His depiction of the German bombing of Guernica brought him much fame.

1939: From the period 1939 to 1940, The Museum of Modern Art in New York City held a successful exhibition of Picasso’s work.

1944: Picasso had a relationship with Françoise Gilot, a young art student who ultimately left Picasso in 1953.

1967: Pablo Picasso made a small-scale model for a public sculpture (Chicago Picasso). This sculpture turned out to be the most recognized landmark in Chicago which was unveiled this year. Picasso refused payment for the same.

1968-1971: This was the period when Pablo Picasso’s works turned out to be more creative and expressive although he did not really receive the kind of recognition he deserved. His works were criticized and it was only after his death, artists realized that Pablo Picasso had used neo-expressionism through his art. This was probably due to the fact Pablo Picasso thought way ahead of his time.

1973: This talented artist passed away on 8th April, 1973.