How long did the cubist movement last?
was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1907 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.
English art historian Douglas Cooper describes three phases of Cubism in his seminal book The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism", (from 1906 to 1908) when the movement was initially developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque; the second phase being called "High Cubism", (from 1909 to 1914) during which time Juan Gris emerged as an important exponent; and finally Cooper referred to "Late Cubism" (from 1914 to 1921) as the last phase of Cubism as a radical avant-garde movement.[[#cite_note-0|[1]]]
In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics.
In order to understand Cezanne's influence on the Cubist art movement, we must first understand the movement itself. Cubism was one of the most significant art movements of the twentieth century. It was the first truly "abstract" art style. Cubists rejected the traditional philosophy that art should copy nature. Instead of depicting subjects from one viewpoint or angle, Cubists, such as founders Pablo Picasso (October 25, 1881 April 8, 1973) and George Braque (May 13, 1882 August 31, 1963), chose to paint their subjects from multiple viewpoints at once, thus increasing the complexity of the painting. They reduced their subjects to basic geometric forms. Cezanne was the fist to comment that "Everything in nature takes its form from the sphere, the cone and the cylinder." This idea formed the foundation for the Cubist movement.
Picasso demonstrated uncanny artistic talent in his early years, painting in a realistic manner through his childhood and adolescence; during the first decade of the twentieth century his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His revolutionary artistic accomplishments brought him universal renown and immense fortunes throughout his life, making him the best-known figure in twentieth century art

stated an approximate start and end date?
In late 1906, Picasso started to paint in a truly revolutionary manner. Inspired by [[../C/cezanne.html|Cézanne]]'s flattened depiction of space, and working alongside his friend [[../B/braque.html|Georges Braque]], he began to express space in strongly geometrical terms. These initial efforts at developing this almost sculptural sense of space in painting are the beginnings of Cubism.
The famous "Demoiselles d'Avignon" is often represented as the seminal Cubist work. Although its impact on later Modernism cannot be denied, William Rubin has proven that it was actually a false start of sorts that did not lead directly into the Cubist work. You can tell this from the 1907 date of the Demoiselles, while the truly proto-Cubist works begin to appear later, in 1908-09.
French art critic Louis Vauxcelles first used the term cubism, and it was after viewing a piece of artwork produced by Braque, the term was in wide use though the creators kept from using the term for quite some time. The Cubist movement expanded from France during this time, and became such a popular movement so quickly that critics began referring to a Cubist school of artists influenced by Braque and Picasso, many of those artists to Cubism into different directions while the originators went through several distinct phases before 1920.
In the 1980s–2000s, contemporary artists variously adapt, develop, quote and critique aspects of Cubist practice. View the paintings of Robert Rooney, Dale Hickey, Stephen Bram, Melinda Harper and Juan Davila; the collage and assemblage works of Madonna Staunton and Rosalie Gascoigne, Elizabeth Gower and Masato Takasaka; the sculptures of James Angus, Jacky Redgate and Gemma Smith and the moving-image installations of John Dunkley-Smith and Daniel Crooks.