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1.1 What Influenced Cubism?
1.2 What Were The Ideas or Philosophies Behind Cubism?
1.3 How Long Did The Cubist Movement Last?
1.4 Which Movements Did Cubism Influence?
2.1 Who Was Involved In Cubism?
2.2 Describe The Influence Of The Two Above Artists Involved In Cubism?
2.3 Which Art Movements Did The Two Chosen Artists Contribute To After Cubism?
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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1.4 Which Movements Did Cubism Influence?
which movements did cubism influence?
was a 20th century
, pioneered by
, that revolutionized European
, and inspired related movements in
. The first branch of cubism, known as
, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1907 and 1911 in France. In its second phase,
the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the
movement gained popularity.
The movement was conceived as 'a new way of representing the world', and assimilated outside influences, such as African art, as well as new theories on the nature of reality, such as Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
Cubism is often divided into two phases - the Analytic phase (1907-12), and the Synthetic phase (1913 through the 1920s). The initial phase attempted to show objects as the mind, not the eye, perceives them.
The process of Cubism is quite complex as the artists change the viewer’s perception of the subject by flattening and distorting space. Cubist artists fully explored the possibilities of this altering reality by mentally cutting apart images and then reforming them on the canvas in an abstract manner with very little sense of depth. Not only did Cubist artists images which appeared to be patterns rather than realistic portrayals of the subjects, but they usually chose mechanical subjects rather than natural, classical, or human images for their artwork.
. In fact, like Expressionism, it may even be disturbing to many viewers or provoke a response that fails to recognize the value of artwork from the art movement of Cubism. However, as many art lovers will attest, the Cubist artist’s unique approach to the creation of art is refreshing due to their ability to break tradition and create new possibilities for art and what it can do and portray.
the Cubists broke from centuries of tradition in their painting by rejecting the single viewpoint. Instead they used an analytical system in which three-dimensional subjects were fragmented and redefined from several different points of view simultaneously.
This geometrically analytical approach to form and color, and shattering of object in focus into geometrical sharp-edged angular pieces baptized the movement into 'Cubism'. A close look reveals very methodical destruction or rather deconstruction into angular 3-dymensional shaded facets, some of which are caving others convex.
The Cubist style emphasized the flat, two-dimensional surface of the picture plane, rejecting the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro, and refuting time-honoured theories that art should imitate nature. Cubist painters were not bound to copying form, texture, colour, and space; instead, they presented a new reality in
that depicted radically fragmented objects.
While Picasso and Braque are credited with creating this new visual language, it was adopted and further developed by many painters, including Fernand Léger (
), Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Juan Gris (
), Roger de La Fresnaye (
, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger (
), and even Diego Rivera (
). Though primarily associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a profound influence on twentieth-century sculpture and architecture. The major Cubist sculptors were Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz.
The liberating formal concepts initiated by Cubism also had far-reaching consequences for Dada and
, as well as for all artists pursuing abstraction in Germany, Holland, Italy, England,
, and Russia.
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Futurism came into being with the appearance of a manifesto published by the poet Filippo Marinetti on the front page of the February 20, 1909, issue of Le Figaro. It was the very first manifesto of this kind.
Marinetti summed up the major principles of the Futurists. He and others espoused a love of speed, technology and violence. Futurism was presented as a modernist movement celebrating the technological, future era. The car, the plane, the industrial town were representing the motion in modern life and the technological triumph of man over nature. Some of these ideas, specially the use of modern materials and technique, were taken up later by Marcel Duchamp (French, 1887-1968), the cubist, the constructivist and the dadaist.
Futurism was inspired by the development of Cubism and went beyond its techniques. The Futurist painters made the rhythm of their repetitions of lines. Inspired by some photographic experiments, they were breaking motion into small sequences, and using the wide range of angles within a given time-frame all aimed to incorporate the dimension of time within the picture. Brilliant colors and flowing brush strokes also additionally were creating the illusion of movement. Futurism influenced many other 20th century art movements, including Art Deco, Vorticism, Constructivism and Surrealism.
Futurists mixed activism and artistic research. They organized events that caused scandal. Everything was there to help them to glorify Italy and lead their country into the age of modernity. Certain Futurists vehemently promoted themselves to try to join forces with the Fascists, who were coming to power at the time. But Mussolini showed a preference for the Novecento Italiano, movement of artists who identified with the classical order and Italian heritage.
Futurism was a largely Italian movement, although it also had adherents in other countries, France and most notably Russia. Close to Futurism with its inspirations and motivations was
, an important development of American Modernism.
Although Futurism itself is now regarded as extinct, having died out during the 1920s, powerful echoes of Marinetti's thought, still remain in modern, popular culture and art. Futurism influenced many other 20th century art movements, including Art Deco, Vorticism, Constructivism and Surrealism.
(1910-13), the term coined by the
, was a little known
during the time of
that focused on pure
and bright colors influenced by
and the dye chemist
. This movement was pioneered by the Delaunays, a couple who relaunched the use of color during the monochromatic Cubist movement.
Suprematism: (1913 - 1919)
Suprematism began in Russia in 1913 with the help of artist Kasimir Malevich. He introduced it to the public in 1915 with his manifesto and exhibition titled "0.10 The Last Futurist Exhibition" held in Petrograd. The Suprematist style aimed to eliminate all natural forms and favored flat geometric patterns that represented emotions rather than objects and supported pure aesthetic creativity. Malevich’s art was produced with pure geometric shapes positioned to only initiate aesthetic feeling and held no allusions to anything social, political, or otherwise. Although the movement was mostly confined to painting, Suprematists used the theory to create textiles, typography, and architectural structures in addition to painting and sculpture. In 1918, Suprematism was replaced by Constructivism.
Constructivism was a movement that was active from 1915 to the 1940’s. It was a movement created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. Objective forms carrying universal meaning were far more suitable to the movement than subjective or individualistic forms. Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements. New media was often used in the creation of works, which helped to create a style of art that was orderly. An art of order was desirable at the time because it was just after WWI that the movement arose, which suggested a need for understanding, unity and peace. Famous artists of the Constructivist movement include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich, Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky.
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